Set of methods and technologies for investigating, designing, steering, and developing complex socio-technical and productive systems. In a national research project supported by the Swiss National Fund, system methodology was first developed by Peter Gomez, Fredmund Malik, and Karl-Heinz Oeller. See Systemmethodik.. Grundlagen einer Methodik zur Erforschung und Gestaltung komplexer soziotechnischer Systeme. Berne: Paul Haupt, 1975