The idea of profit maximisation is the main aspect of the value creation concept, which is the basis of the shareholder value approach. It mirrors the assumption of classical business science, that the main goal, or perhaps even the purpose, of a business is to generate a profit. This assumption, however, is erroneous and misleading. It leads to a misdirection of business on a grand scale. From the point of view of system oriented management, profit has to be seen as a result of business and entrepreneurship and not its purpose or motivation. Profit certainly is a necessary requirement for the continuous existence of a business, but not a sufficient prerequisite for the purpose of a business: profit merely is the measure for the extent to which a business fulfils its business mission, in an effective way.